三分pk10

三分pk10【MEITIJUJIAO】NONGYECHUNFENGCHUIMANDI,LANRENGENGZUOKAOKEJI

  出品:科普中国 

  制作: 朱雪峰(中国科学院沈阳生态研究所) 

  监制:中国科学院计算机网络信息中心 

 

  JINNIANDEDONGBEIHEITUDISHANG,SHAOLEDALIANG"LIANCHAOHUANGTUBEICHAOTIAN"DERENGONGLAOZUO,QUEDUOLEJIXIEHUADE"MIANGENGBOZHONG",HAIYOU"JIEGANGUIHAI"DESHENGSHIGAOXIAO。

  MIANGENGBOZHONGHEJIEGANGUIHAIYOUBEIRENMENXICHENGWEI"LANRENGENGZUO",ERLINGYIGEMINGZIJIAO"BAOHUXINGGENGZUO",RUJINTASHIYUELAIYUELIUXINGLE。

  JIEZHI2019NIANDI,ZHONGGUODONGBEICHAOGUO1500WANMUTUDISHIXINGBAOHUXINGGENGZUO。

  2020NIAN2YUE,NONGYENONGCUNBU、CAIZHENGBULIANHEYINFADE《DONGBEIHEITUDIBAOHUXINGGENGZUOXINGDONGJIHUA(2020-2025)》MINGQUETICHU:

  要加快推进保护性耕作的推广和应用,力争在2025年时能将保护性耕作技术推广到1.4亿亩的土地上。 

  问题来了,免耕、秸秆归还,都是什么操作?为什么要这样操作呢? 

MIANGENGBOZHONGJIZAIQUANLIANGJIEGANFUGAIXIABOZHONG(JIEHONGTUGONGTU)

盛产东北大米的黑土地正在退化

三分pk10  SHUODAODONGBEIHEITUDI,NINKENDINGDUIXIANGPENPENDEDONGBEIDAMIHEJINCANCANDEYUMIBUHUIMOSHENG,NEIRUANNUODEKOUGAN,ZHASHIDEYANGFEN,JUEDUISHILIANGSHIZHONGDEZHANDOULIANG,ERZHEIDOUDEYIYUDONGBEIFEIWOHEITUDEZIYANG。

三分pk10  RANER,ZHANGQIDECHUANTONGGENGZUODUITURANGDEGUODUKAIKENHEQIANGLIERAODONGJIASHANGDIBIAOJIEGANDEGUODUQINGLIHEFENSHAO,YANZHONGPOHUAILEYOUYIYUZUOWUSHENGZHANGDETURANGJIEGOU,JIANGDILETURANGYANGFENDESHURU,JIASHANGLUOLUDETURANGJIYIZAOSHOUFENGSHISHUISHI,YUANBENFEIWODEHEITUYOUJIZHIHANLIANGLIANNIANXIAJIANG,YUANLAINEIGEFEIDELIUYOUDEHEITUDIBIANDEYUELAIYUEPINJISHUSONG,TURANGDETUIHUAYANZHONGZHIYUELEDONGBEIDIQUDELIANGSHICHANLIANGHENONGYEDEKECHIXUFAZHAN。

三分pk10DONGBEIDAMIHEYUMI(ZHUXUEFENGGONGTU)

扎根黑土地 十余年钻研探索出保护性耕作技术

  日益严峻的土壤退化问引起了科学家的注意。2007年,中科院沈阳应用生态研究所的张旭东研究员带领团队成员火速赶往黑土退化一线,在吉林省梨树县梨树镇高家村的一片黑土地上,开始了长达十余年的钻研和摸索,最终成功开创了一整套农艺农机融合、玉米秸秆覆盖、免(少)耕机械化技术模式,对解决东北黑土退化问题提供了良方。 

  SHISHIBAOHUXINGGENGZUODENONGTIANSHANGBUXUYAOCHUANTONGGENGZUODEJIEGANQINGLI、XUANGENGQILONG,ZHUYAOSHIQIUTIANYUMISHOUHUOHOU,JIANGJIEGANYUANDIJUNYUNFUGAI,CHUNBOSHI,MIANGENGBOZHONGJICHUCHANG,ZHIJIEZAIJIEGANFUGAIDENONGTIANSHANGSHISHIMIANGENGBOZHONGSHIFEIYITIHUAZUOYE,CONGERSHIXIANJIEGANHAITIAN、MIANGENGBOZHONG。BAOHUXINGGENGZUOJIANSHAOLETURANGRAODONG,YOULIYUHEITUDIBAOHU,TONGSHISHIXIANLEJIEBENZENGXIAO、NONGMINZENGSHOU,SHIYIXIANGLIGUOLIMINDEHAOJISHU。

为什么"懒人耕作"反倒对土地更好?其实是科学的力量

  WOMENCHANGCHANGJIANG"QINLAOZHIFU",ZENMEZHEICIFANDAOGULIDAJIA"LANRENGENGZUO"LENI?

  其实,这背后是科学的力量。这项保护性耕作技术的核心就是减少土壤扰动和增加地表作物秸秆覆盖。 

  TUDIYUWOMENRENLEIYIYANG,XUYAOYONGXINHEHU,MIANGENGHUOZHESHAOGENGBAOHULETURANGDEYUANSHENGTAITEXING,WEITURANGSHENGWUTIGONGLELIANGHAODESHENGCUNKONGJIAN,BUJINKEYICUJINTURANGDONGWUDUITURANGJIEGOUDEGAILIANG,HAINENGTIGAOTURANGWEISHENGWUDEDUOYANGXING,CUJINTURANGYANGFENDEXUNHUANHEJILEI,RANGHEITUZHONGXINHUANFASHENGJIHEHUOLI。

  LINGYIFANGMIAN,CHUNJIDEDAFENGHUICHUIZOULUOLUTURANGZHONGBAOGUIDEYOUJIZHI,SHISHIBAOHUXINGGENGZUOHOU,ZUOWUJIEGANDEFUGAIHAITIANJIUXIANGJITURANGGAISHANGLEYICENG "BEIZI",KEYIJIANGDITURANGDEFENGSHIHESHUISHI,YOUNENGGOUZENGJIATURANGXUSHUIBAOSHANGDENENGLI。

  TONGSHI,ZHEICENGJIEGANYOUXIANGZIYANGDADIPIFUDE"MIANMO",JIANGDALIANGDESHUIFENHEYANGFENBUJIZHITURANG,TIGAOTURANGDETANCHULIANGHEFEILI,JIHUANJIELEDAQITANNONGDUSHENGGAOZAOCHENGDEQIHOUBIANHUAWENTI,YOUJIANSHAOLEHUAFEIDESHIYONG,CUJINLENONGYEFAZHANDEJIEBENZENGXIAO。

YUMIJIEGANHAITIAN(JIEHONGTUGONGTU)

 

  秸秆还田之所以能够较好地提升土壤碳储量和养分含量,主要归功于土壤微生物三分pk10这个地下庞大劳动队伍的助攻,建立起了外源有机质向土壤有机质转化和贡献的桥梁。

  WEIRAOZHEIYIDIAN,JINGGUODUIWEISHENGWUDAIXIEZAITURANGWUZHIXUNHUANZHONGFAHUIZUOYONGDEZHANGQIYANJIU,ZHANGXUDONGYANJIUYUANDETUANDUICONGTANHEDANLIANGFANGMIANFENBIETICHULEYUANCHUANGXINGDEJILIGAINIAN,CHANMINGTURANGWEISHENGWUDUIYUWAIYUANYOUJIZHIZHUANHUADEDIAOKONGJIZHI。

  其中,从碳的角度来说,该团队的梁超研究员形象地将土壤微生物对植物碳转化至土壤碳库中的过程抽象成了"土壤微生物碳泵"的概念,重点描绘了土壤微生物通过同化作用,将"吃"进来的植物碳合成为自身生物量,经过生长和死亡的迭代周转,不断以微生物源有机碳的形式贡献给土壤稳定碳库的过程。

三分pk10  DUIYUBAOHUXINGGENGZUOLAISHUO,ZUOWUJIEGANTANJIUXIANGDANGYUWEISHENGWUYAOCHIDE"SHIWU",JINGGUOTURANGWEISHENGWUTANBENGBUDUANDIHECHENGDAIXIE,JIANGWAIYUANTANCHIXUDIZHUANHUAWEITURANGTANKUDEYIBUFEN。

TURANGWEISHENGWUTANBENGGAINIANKUANGJIASHIYITU(FANYIXIUGAIZILiang et al.2017 Nature Microbiology)

 

  从氮的角度来说,这些微生物代谢调控链条在土壤氮素保持和供给过程中同样具有重要作用。 

  当富含养分的秸秆加入到土壤中后,微生物群落被迅速激活,使得微生物在代谢周转秸秆养分的过程中产生大量的微生物源有机氮贡献给土壤;同时,秸秆作为有效碳源也是促进微生物对外源无机肥料氮固持和转化的神助攻,微生物对这部分有机氮的矿化过程为作物和微生物持续提供可利用氮素,这种具有可高度循环性的氮素被张旭东研究员凝练成了"土壤有效氮过渡库"的概念。 

  团队的何红波研究员将"土壤有效氮过渡库"更加形象地比喻成"骆驼的驼峰",同时具有储存和释放养分的功能,秸秆和肥料氮素在土壤微生物的转化下,储存进入这个"驼峰"中,按需释放,然后再补充,周而复始。

三分pk10  YOUCIKEJIAN,JIEGANDETIANJIABUJINKEYICUJINWEISHENGWUDUIJIEGANYANGFENDEZHUANHUALAITIGAOTURANGFEILI,HAIKEYIYOUXIAOTIGAOFEILIAODELIYONGXIAOLV,JIANSHAOFEILIAOSUNSHIHELINRONGFENGXIAN,YOUXIAODEJIEYUEFEILIAOCHENGBENBINGBAOHUDIXIASHUIYUAN。

三分pk10TURANGYOUXIAODANGUODUKUSHIYITU(TUPIANLAIZIZHANGXUDONGYANJIUTUANDUIWANGZHAN)

农业发展离不开勤劳的人们 更离不开科技

三分pk10  ZONGDELAISHUO,MIANGENGHEJIEGANHAITIANBUJINYOULIYUTURANGLIHUAXINGZHIDEGAISHAN,TONGSHIYOULIYUCUJINWEISHENGWUDUIJIEGANTANHEYANGFENDEFENJIEZHUANHUA,JINERSHIDETURANGDESHUI、FEI、QI、REDENGTIAOJIANYOULIYUZUOWUDESHENGZHANGFAYU,ZUIZHONGCUJINZUOWUCHANLIANGDETIGAO,KANSI"LANRENGENGZUO",QISHIZHEIZHONGXINXINGGENGZUOMOSHIBICHUANTONGGENGZUOGENGNENGHANYANGTUDI,SHENGSHISHENGLI,JIEYUECHENGBEN。

  XIEDAOZHEILI,BIZHEBUJINXIANGZUO"SHI"YISHOU:JIEGANBUSHIWUQINGWU,QIANWANBIEBATALAISHAO。MIANGENGSHAOGENGJIAJIEGAN,HUAZUOCHUNNIGENGHUMIAO。CUJINWEISHENGWUFALI,CHUNZHONGQIUSHOUKECHIXU。GUOJIAQINGQIANHEITUDI,NONGYEFAZHANKAOKEJI。LIANGSHIANQUANYOUBAOZHANG,JISHUTUIGUANGXIANGQIANJIN!

  
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